Marble Slab 目录

一?Brief Introduction----简?/strong>
1,Standard Size----尺寸
2,Thickness----厚度
3,Finish----表面处理
4,Quality Control----质检标准
5,Package----包装要求
6,Handling and storage----搬运要求
7,Other tips----小贴?br>

二,About Block----荒料
1,Rough Block----荒料的初?br> 2,Checking block measurements----荒料的测?br> 3,Block Inspection----荒料的检?br> 4,Blocks for shipment----荒料的装船事?br>

三,Production Procedure----生产程序
Gang Saws v.s Circle Saws in Production---- 砂锯v.s圆盘锯的生产过程
Band Polishing Machinery----抛光程序及放置方?br>

四,The Usage of Slab----大板的用?/strong>

五,The Commercial Inspection Standard (In china)----国内大板质检标准

六,The Commercial Inspection Standard (National Standard)----国际大板质检标准

七,Material available----常用颜色

八,FAQ----客户常见问题解答
1,Could you pls send me a complete FOB list of granite slabs?----给一份大板的报价
2,Do you have black granite slab?---关于黑色大板的相关问?br> 3,Can you tell me more info about Black Galaxy? We find 3 ranges of prices.---关于黑金沙的三个报价等级问题
4,Some stones?natural problem.----一些石头颜色不适合做大板的问题
Can we overload the slab when decrease the thickness?---减少大板厚度以装更多的数?br> 6,what do you mean “the price is subjected to the final actual size shipped??why I pay extra amount than invoice value?---大板的总价由最终的尺寸决定
7,Will you buy the insurance for my goods?---大板的买保险问题
8,fumigation---熏蒸问题

Brief Introduction:

Slabs are fabricated by the sawing of granite blocks in the desired thickness, mostly for use as a flooring material. The granite blocks are cut by granite gang saw machines, then the sawn granite slabs are polished on polishing machines, or flamed by hand, at last polished or flamed slabs are cut and finished by other processing machines. Granite slabs are made available in a wide range of sizes for multiple uses, the edges can be sawn or natural. Large granite slab is used for flooring, wall cladding, counter tops, thick granite slabs are used for gravestones, tombstones, plaques, stone arts or crafts etc.

Standard Size:
Gang saw Slab Standard size: 48''-60''up x 96''-110''upx 3/4'' & 1 3/16''thick
1200mm up x 2400mm up x 20mm & 30mm

Circle saw/Half Slab size: 48'' down x free length x 3/4'' & 1 3/16''thick
1200mm down x free length x 20mm & 30mm thick

请注意:大板的尺寸跟其荒料的大小是息息相关的。有些石头是有大小料之分的,如山西黑、蓝珍珠、绿星、啡钻、黑金沙、满天星、蝴蝶蓝、英国棕、G682等;墨绿麻、蝴蝶绿,奥文度金,黄金钻等则没有大小料之分;蒙古黑和福鼎黑没有大料。(所谓的大料是指2.4M以上,小料是?.8M以下)。对于有大小料之分的石头,价格差别会比较大,报价的时候要十分注意;没有大料或是大料少的石头(如虎皮黄、金沙绿)在报价前要先确定有没有料?/strong>

Finish: Polished, Flamed, Honed, Machine Cut, Flamed, Sandblasted, Bush-Hammered, Chiseled, etc. Anyway, people ask for polished surface in most cases.

Quality Control:
Polished degree: Above 85 degree
Thickness Tolerance: The thickness of gang sawn slabs will have a tolerance of +/-1/2mm; the polished face will be level.

As natural products, there maybe some color line and blemish on the broad top of some kind of stone
1、如果长度或宽度少于最基本尺寸,则不能用;
2、如果厚度太厚或太薄,太厚需要重新定?太薄的则不可?
3、有些石?如山西黑,蝴蝶?墨绿?绿星?如果磨的不好,光度不够,则需要先擦干净,然后用钢丝棉涂上抛光?这样可以增强石面光亮;
4、如发现有小的裂?则用与石头颜色相近的记号笔涂一?然后用布擦掉,这样裂痕就不明显?
5、如果抛光度没达到客户的要求,一般为85~90度比? 则需返回大磨?重新?
6、同一个批的产?颜色要尽量相?色差不能太大.

Package: Slab should be packed with plastic film, and then set in strong wooden bundle.

大板是用木架包装的,光面对光面,中间有用薄膜隔开以保护光面不被划痕。在每扎大板上还会盖上一层塑料膜,起到防水,防尘和防其它的东西滴到板面上的作用。每扎大概包?-10片大板,重量大概?.6吨(5700磅)左右?br>
大板在装柜的时候一定要加固,否则在运输过程中很容易发生倒塌事故。而且加固的木条要达到要求的厚度才行!







Handling and storage: As the heavy of slabs, the slabs should be stocked and moved including loading and unloading vertically. If they are granite and marble polished slabs, then they should be moved or stocked vertically with the polished faces touching each other. When slabs are going to be stocked at the job site, the following precautions should be taken:

Other tips:
1) Slabs should be placed away from the job traffic area.
2) The polished sides should be facing each other.
3) Slabs should be resting vertically.
4) If it is necessary to stack them, the slabs should be separated by a 1"x4" piece of wood.

For more details:

About Block

Rough Block: Most rough blocks are taken to the factory stock yard to be inspected to qualify both their size and the quality before shipping.

Checking block measurements: All of rough blocks are measured and the sizes are painted onto the side of blocks before being moved to the shipping yard. Each block has its own unique shipping mark denoting its weight and destination. The vertical marks running around the bottom of this block are drilling marks. During the extraction of this block, drills were used to lever it away from the rock face.

Block Inspection: At the factory stockyard the blocks are further inspected. In the background various rough block materials are still awaiting inspection. The code on the side of the block in the foreground denotes the shipping marks and destination of that particular block.

Blocks for shipment: The blocks are all ready for shipment. Some of blocks are extremely large and they would be cut to a specific customer order. Some block sizes are usually limited only by international transport shipping regulations and a port's ability to actually lift the block.

Production Procedure

The process could be divided into: cut --blow--bake--resin--polish.
As granite is hard stones in texture, the cutting material for the granite should be steel saw blade + calcareousness+ corundum. One block of normal size granite needs to take 4 days to cut to piece. As it is not only cutting, but also grinding in the process, it would waste quite some materials when cutting. After cutting, the slabs need to be blew to take of the dirties on the surface. Then it would goes into a oven to bake. As we know, the processing of stones would need help of water, so the oven would help to dry the surface of the slab for the next step. Next step is to resin the slab. It is the integrant part of stone processing, almost every stone have little pores and crannies, and the resin could help to fill the little holes. Different stone colors would need different color’s resin.
After resin, it goes to the last step of polishing. There are many steps in polishing using different polishing materials and tools. The higher polishing level goes, the lighter the slab surface shows. The degree would depend on the requirement of the customer.



Gang Saws: These gang saws in this particular part of the complex are used for the production of construction slabs. The gang saws use water and an abrasive component to aid the steel blades cut through the dense granite. The water used here is later recycled in a separate section of the plant.



GCircle Saws in Production: We have several circle saws operating 24 hours a day. The blades on these saws vary in size but shown in the foreground of this image is a blade of 2 meters (over 6 feet) diameter.

This picture shows one of our largest blades cutting through a granite material. Here you can see the water that is used to cool and lubricate the diamond tipped blade in action. Later this water is recycled - it is filtered several times to remove the used components, which is later replaced with a fresh mix to maintain efficiency throughout the cutting system.



This view shows one of our gantry cranes that services our imported gang saws and can also be used for loading open top containers. This crane can also be used to remove closed containers from the back of a truck and place it on the ground. The container is then "stuffed" by fork truck.


Band Polishing Machinery: In the foreground of this picture, we can see the polishing bricks used within this machine to polish slabs. The machine is a dedicated piece able to apply a very fine finish to all stone materials. The only limitation this machine has is the width of the slab - the heights and lengths can all be adjusted automatically to accommodate all orders.

Note: Lengths of slabs are typically restricted to the size of the block in which they were cut from.



This image shows racks of slabs ready for inspection prior to packing and shipment.


Slabs are usually left with rough edges since they are normally modified by the wholesale producers. These slabs have a variety of applications ranging from kitchen work surfaces, decorative interiors, fireplaces, work tops and, of course, building facades, the primary use for most granites.


Large slabs in bundles ready for shipment. Depending upon the customer's request, they can be shipped either by open top or closed container.

The Usage of Slab

These granite slabs possess hardness, excellent and lasting polish, durability and resistance to stain, scratch and heat. Due to these attributes they are widely used for flooring, vanities, wall cladding, kitchen counters, fireplaces, shower and tub surrounds. Thick granite slabs are used for gravestones, tombstones and plaques and other granite monuments and stone arts and crafts. These are also used for urban design such as for constructing paves, steps, security barriers and railings, park benches, and picnic tables.

Purchasing granite slab for your installation can be overwhelming at first so here are a few things to remember and think about when making your choice. While some stones are very uniform in appearance, some have a great range of variation. Make sure you note the characteristics you like so your countertops will reflect the attributes you chose. Stone slabs are cut from blocks and then sliced like loaves of bread with gang saws. While characteristics are generally consistent from piece to piece, they can vary. Slabs usually to be used to made countertop, vanity top, tiles, wall project. It is a good idea to have a fabricator in mind prior to selecting a slab.

The Commercial Inspection Standard (In china):

Below are a set of strict standard system for quality control. Each order will be followed, supervised and controlled by our inspector from stem to stern so as to guarantee our quality standard and delivery time.
1?Material selection: before cutting the material on the machine, all of them must be inspected and selected by our inspectors carefully. And we make the code on each block and are sure to process eligible material on our machine.
2?When the material blocks were sent to machine, we adopt Italian gang saw to cutting the slabs, and then do some cleaning, all products must be inspected and selected by our inspectors strictly and made the code on each piece. Then good quality products will be sent to auto-polishing line.
3?When polishing, it is adopted Italian auto-polishing machine entirely to polish, kibble and fine-polishing to attain the international level. Then our inspector inspects them again and selects the same color according to each stand side (a little different color exists in natural stone), and last eligible ones will be sent to edge-cutter to cut into finished products.
4?There should be no grinding wheel marks on the polished face.
5?Quality Control: The thickness tolerance is calibrated from ±0.5mm. Polished degree is 85°up.
Flaming: Flame will be uniform throughout the slabs/tiles and brushed evenly on slabs/tiles after flaming
Thickness: (Between different pieces) Needs to be consistent and ±1.0mm in tolerance for different slab; and ±0.5mm on the same slab; ±0.5mm in tolerance for each tile (12"x12"x3/4").

Flatness (On the same piece):
If length <= 400mm,flatness tolerance: ±0.2mm
* If 400mm < length < 1000, flatness tolerance: ±0.5mm
* If length >= 1000mm, tolerance: ±0.8mm
Unpolished Side: The unpolished side of the slab/tiles should be flat and smooth.
Crack, Edge Defect, Corner Defect: Not allowed for slabs and tiles.

The Commercial Inspection Standard (National Standard):

1. Thickness tolerances
The thickness shall not deviate from the nominal thickness by more than given in Table 1
Nominal thickness (mm) Tolerance
More than 12 ± 10%
Up to and including 30
More than 30 ± 3 mm
Up to and including 80
More than 80 ± 5 mm

Stricter tolerances may be declared by the manufacturer. This is particularly important when the edges of the slabs will be visible.
NOTE: If the slab is to be fixed by adhesive or a thin mortar bed, stricter tolerances may be needed.
The required thickness of slabs shall result from a structural analysis or similar procedure which takes into account the technical and physical properties of the stone and the intended application.
For natural cleft/riven faces, Table-1 does not apply and the tolerances on thickness shall be declared by manufacturer.

2. Surface flatness tolerances

The deviation from flatness of the surface (except for natural cleft faces) shall not exceed 0,2 % of the slab length, and shall not exceed 3 mm. For natural cleft faces, the tolerance on flatness shall be declared by manufacturer.

3. Length and width tolerances

The length or width shall not deviate from t he nominal size by more than given in Table 2

Nominal length or width (mm) < 600 = 600
Sawn edges thickness <= 50 mm ± 1 mm ± 1,5 mm
Sawn edges thickness > 50 mm ± 2 mm ± 3 mm

Stricter tolerances may be declared by the manufacturer.

4. Tolerances for angles and special shapes

The permissible tolerance at any point shall be as stated in Table 2 (see Figure 1).
Each slab angle shall be in accordance with the agreed geometry. Pieces of special or irregular shape shall be checked for compliance with the required shape by use of a suitable template, the permissible tolerance at any point shall be as stated in the above Table.
Stricter tolerances may be declared by the manufacturer. This is particularly important when the edges of the slabs will be visible.



Material available

Absolute Black, Shanxi black, black galaxy slabs, Tan Brown, Maple Red, Ivory Indian, Multicolor Red, White Galaxy, Tropical Green, Saphire Brown, Mardura Gold, India Blues, India Red, Kashmir Gold, Kashmir White, Black Pearl, Juparana Colombo, Bahama Blue, Antico Brown, Parodiso, Parodiso Green, San Francisco, Café Imperial, Giallo Cecilia, Rose White, Yellow Butterfly, Giallo Antico, Carioco Gold, Blue Eye, New Giallo Veneziano, Giallo San Francisco, Juparana Classico, Giallo Oranmental, Giallo Fiorito, Verde Butterfly, Brazil Gold, Giallo Santa Cecilia, Verde Ubatuba, Colonial Brazil, Tiger skin yellow, Veneziano gold, Peecock green, Samoa, Golden King, Imperial brown, Calefornia gold, Brazil White, Mahogany Dakota, Pink Porrino, Blue Pearl, Emerald Pearl, Labrador Antico, Tropical Brown golden leaf, Green Marinace, Carmen Red, Baltic Brown, Caledonia, Gardenia White, Xili Red, Huidong Red, Wave White, Big flower white, China green, Baltic Brown, Cafe Imperial, Raw Silk, Giallo Veneziano, Juparana Colombo, Golden Leaf, Giallo Ornamental, Giallo Antico, Santa Cecilia, Madura Gold, Kashmir Gold, Giallo SF Real, Autumn Gold, Samoa, New Venetian Gold, Giallo Napoleon, Giallo California, Carioca Gold, Multicolor, Imperial Red, Santiago Red, Rosa Beta, Africa Red, Blue Pearl, Laverdar Blue, Blue Eyes, Emerald Pearl, Butterfly Green, Verde Uba tuba, Forest Green, Black Galaxy, Black labrador, Impala Black, Africa Black, Steel Gray, Paradiso, Belfast, Labrador, Imperial White, Kashmir White, White Galaxy, Regina White, G655 Hazel White, G654, G682 Golden Peach, Rustic yellow, Tan Sand, Golden Sand, G611 Almond Mauve, G634 Misty Mauve, G635 Pink Rose, G636 Almond Pink, G640 Luna Pearl, G648 Deer Brown, G664 Misty Brown, G657 Rosa Luna,, G684 Black Pearl, G687 Peach Red, G439 Big White Flower, Tiger Skin White, Leopard Skin, G562 Maple Leaves, Surf White, Shanxi Black, Absolute Black, Tianshan Red, Huidong Red, Chengde Green, Evergreen, Crystal Green, Ice Blue, Mum Yellow, Autumn Leaf, Butterfly Blue and Mongolia Black etc.

花岗岩大板的生产流程主要包括以下内容?/p>
??砂锯:用于切割花岗岩,因为花岗岩的硬度很高,切一车(500?00平方)要花费70多个小时。其可切的荒料最长为3.3m,宽为4.8m,高为2.5m。主要靠锯片和钢砂的摩擦作用来切割,泥浆中还含有石灰(起润滑和防锈作用)、水、石渣。钢砂的供给量和速度根据荒料的软硬程度来定。平整度误差?.8mm?br> ??粗面:火烧面、荔枝面、剁斧面,水喷等
光面:亚光面、磨光面
??根据石头材质的不同,在大磨之后有的需要上胶然后晒干。抛光也有分为水抛、棕抛和黑抛。材质较敏感的,如:黑金砂、山西黑,一般要用水抛?br> ??通常情况下,长于2.4m,高?.2m的就称之为大板,厚度较常做的?cm?cm?br>
金刚石布拉磨块是以金刚石颗粒为磨粒,由多种金属或金属化合物的粉末构成结合剂,经高温烧结而成,其构成合理,磨粒与结合剂粘结牢固,在使用过程中不易脱落,使用寿命长? 可用来加工各种硬质材料,如大理石、花岗石、水磨石等,并可提高其加工精度,特别是用于全自动花岗石抛光线生产,锋利度好,切削力强,耐磨度好,性价比高?br> 使用金刚石磨块有如下优点?br> 1、省电:金刚石磨块由于超强的锋利性可以用更小的切屑力磨削石材。由于磨头的压力?br> 以大幅度下降,机械的磨损降低,同时加工同样厚度的板材可以减少石材破损率,也可以加工较薄石板材?br> 2、高效:金刚石磨块由于超强的锋利性和耐磨性可以稳定地提高输送带的传动速度,从而提高生产效率;
3、光度高:用金刚石磨块可以提高石材光?0 度以上。金刚石磨块由于采用先进的生? 工艺可以完全避免如菱苦土磨块在生产过程中氧化镁活性降低和养护条件的变化使磨块? 质量不稳定;由于金刚石生产和检测工艺和运输过程比碳化硅严格,金刚石的粒度均匀性远 大于碳化硅,所以造成石材划痕和光度不稳定的可能性大大降低;
4、质量可靠:由于目前金刚石规模化生产,其价格已经大大下降,所以金刚石磨块的价? 也大大下降,另外由于金刚石磨块的生产可以采用计算机控制的生产设备和工艺,而菱苦土 磨块的生产仍然采用简单人工生产设备和工艺,并且生产周期长达一个月以上,影响质量的 时间很长,质量不可能稳定?br> 同时,大磨的目的也是要使板面平整,在大磨结束后,要用靠尺紧贴板面测量平整度; 加工石料都是有纹路的,因此在大磨加工中,要循着板面纹路大磨?br>
磨光大板的检验标准:
1)颜?、花纹要与卖方所提供的小样基本相?br> 2)外? 镜面磨光均匀,无缺角,缺棱,裂纹,坑窝,色线,色斑?br> 3)厚度是否符合标?br> 4) 注意尺寸偏差、平面度公差、角度公
5)注意干燥压缩强度、弯曲强度、体积密度、吸水率是否合格

有一点非常重要的就是,有些石头会有石胆,石线,或色差问题,这个在报价的时候要先跟客户说明,看客户是否能接受?br> 色差较大的石头有:菊花黄、紫点金麻,虎皮黄,G682等;
有石线的石头为:墨绿麻、啡钻等?br> 石胆较多的石头有:G611、G614、G634、樊西兰、西丽红、江西菊花黄等?br>

FAQ

1, Could you pls send me a complete FOB list of granite slabs?
----Dear Sir. Thank you very much for your business chance. Could you kindly help me with more info for quotation?
1) Do you prefer to Chinese colors or imported ones? Also, what colors are you interested in? Such as, black, white, grey, yellow, red, i.e.?
2) What range of price are you searching for, economic, medium or superior?

Based on the above info, we probably will give you an accurate quotation. It’s more effective and efficient in this way. Or if you have time, welcome to visit our website www.apexstoen.net for more info.

2, Do you have black granite slab?
----Yes, we do provide it. But here I kindly ask for your attention on below notes regarding the black granite.
1) Black labrador is more suitable for tombstone, seldom people cut it to slab.
2) G684 Black Pearl, its size of block is very small and its greatest height is 1.2m but very seldom. Once it reach that height then its price would be extremely high, as expensive as Shanxi Black?br> 3) Mongolia Black and Black Zhanpu(dark), the size of their block is small, could not reach to slab size.
4) Zimbabwe Black, we suggest Shanxi Black, which is more popular in the market now.
5) Black Galaxy, honestly, due to its natural mineral composition, some problems would raised up in the surface; the price we offer is only for your reference. And if you are really keen on this color, kindly double check the samples before you place the order

3, Can you tell me more info about Black Galaxy? We find 3 ranges of prices.
---- With regard to Black Galaxy, the price is varied due to different grades of quality. Here, we offer three grades for your consideration.
Grade A, highest polish degree of the surface without being waxed, close to the U.S standard.
Grade B, normal quality.
Grade C, 30%-40% of the surface has the black veins, which may go through the whole surface.

4, Some stones?natural problem.
1) Multicolor Riband B and Polishing Slate, their blocks are not big enough so they coundn’t be cut to slab.
2) Red Cream, our policy is that the minimum order is one container.
3) Agate Red, about the stone color, there is no obvious variation but it has the red and gray background differences.
4) Crystal White, there are two places of origins. One is in Shanxi province; the raw material is suitable for small size. The other is in Sichuan province, it is suitable for slab. However, if the size is big, both of them could not avoid the fact, that is, the stone surface is not in high quality.
5) Dynasty White, it usual contains some impurities and has yellow lines on the surface; especially the big size could not avoid these problems.
6) Cinderella abc refer to the same stone but have different shades, so even from the same block the slabs will appear different colors. In order to let our customers know this stone is unstable in color, we put four pictures in our website.

In a word, for the marble, you may know that, its flows and veins are not so consistent as granite. In general, the color and vein may vairified on the same surface of slab.

5, Can we overload the slab when decrease the thickness?
----Yes. That depends on the decreased thickness.
?The tolerance of circle sawed slab is -1 and +2.
?But pls kindly note the exact qty is subjected to the actual size shipped, especially for the slabs with random length edges.

6, what do you mean “the price is subjected to the final actual size shipped??why I pay extra amount than invoice value?
----Regarding the payment amount, let me explain in this way to help you make it clear.
Take G439 as an example. Unit price is $2.93 per/sf.
1) When we send you the pro-forma invoice, we estimate in this way, the area of one piece is 42.50sf(the minimum size is 102''x60''), it's $2.93 per/sf, so a pcs is $124.53. Totally, 12 pcs is $1494.36.
2) But the slab size is random. So we note that total price varies according to actually size shipped.
3) After we finished the cutting, we can get 583.100 sf from a block. Every piece size is bigger than 102’’x60’?and there are11 pcs of slabs. So the amount is $1708.48. You can check the dimension details in the 1st page of the pro-forma invoice, which I already sent you on Aug. 25.

7, Will you buy the insurance for my goods?
----Yes, as a responsible supplier, we strongly recommend you to buy the insurance just in case of accidents. The insurance fee is just a small number compared with the unseen loss, especially for the large sum money products, such as slab, countertops, and etc. The insurance is included if we do CIF and DDP term. Anyway, we can also buy it for you but supposed to be covered by the buyer.

8、Do the containers need to be fumigated?
The Chinese Custom regulates that all the containers that export from China need to be fumigated.