Stone Carving

目录

一?简介:
1?雕刻的定?br> 2?石雕的起?br> 3?石雕的分?

二、雕刻的生产工艺流程
1、开?br> 2、打?br> 3、打?br> 4、光泽润?/p>

三、石材雕刻必备的七样工具
1、雕刻刀
2、石雕凿
3、石雕锤
4、木雕刀
5、弓?br> 6、比例弓?br> 7、点型仪

四、石雕的产品
1、圆?
2、浮?
(1)柱子
(2)喷泉
(3)壁炉
(4)雕像
(5)门廊
(6)意形雕刻
(7)花盆
(8)花瓶
(9)露台
(10)佛塔

五、大理石与花岗岩雕刻的地域分?/strong>

六、验货标?
1、根据照片来生产的产?
2、根据客户的细节图来生产的产?/p>

七、包?

八、装?

九、常用的石头

十、在贸易过程中常见的问题

一、简介:

1、雕刻的定义:雕刻指在石块上雕刻各种图案和形象的艺术,通常也指用石块雕刻成的雕塑工艺品?/p>

2、石质雕刻起源很早。早在原始社会,人们在利用石块制作石器、进行生产生活的同时,也产生了对石的巫术审美。他们把石块雕制成为肖人形或人面形,如图中展示的两块,用作巫术祭祀。除普通石质,他们还启用当时珍贵的翠玉?/p>

精美的雕像,佛像,装饰品是从变质石灰石,也是通常所说的大理石雕刻而来。这些雕刻品是抽象思维到具体可感形式的里程碑。这些雕刻是宝贵的遗产,有着巨大的文化意义和历史意义。它们就是过去时代的艺术,文化,遗产的见证。这些不朽的艺术杰作激励了年轻的艺术家和艺术鉴赏家。印度手工艺传统带给我们一些经典的大理石雕刻品?/p>

3、中国石雕按石料分有青石雕刻、大理石雕刻、汉白玉雕刻、滑石雕刻、墨晶石雕刻、彩石雕刻、卵石雕刻等?/p>

Brief Introduction:

The oldest known works of representational art are stone carvings. Often marks carved into rock or petroglyphs will survive where painted work will not. Prehistoric Venus figurines such as the Venus of Berekhat Ram may be as old as 800,000 years, and are carved in stones such as tuff and limestone.

These earliest examples of stone carving are the result of hitting or scratching a softer stone with a harder one, although sometimes more resilient materials such as antlers are known to have been used for relatively soft stone. Another early technique was to use an abrasive that was rubbed on the stone to remove the unwanted area.

Prior to the discovery of steel by any culture, all stone carving was carried out by using an abrasion technique, following rough hewing of the stone block using hammers. The reason for this is that bronze, the hardest available metal until steel, is not hard enough to work any but the softest stone. The Ancient Greeks used the ductility of bronze to trap small granules of carborundum, that are naturally occurring on the island of Milos, thus making a very efficient file for abrading the stone.

The development of iron made possible stone carving tools, such as chisels, drills and saws made from steel, that were capable of being hardened and tempered to a state hard enough to cut stone without deforming, while not being so brittle as to shatter. Carving tools have changed little since then.

Modern, industrial, large quantity techniques still rely heavily on abrasion to cut and remove stone, although at a significantly faster rate with processes such as water erosion and diamond saw cutting.

One modern stone carving technique uses a new process. The technique of applying sudden high temperature to the surface. The expansion of the top surface due to the sudden increase in temperature causes it to break away. On a small scale Oxy-acetylene torches are used. on an industrial scale lasers are used. On a massive scale, carvings such as the Crazy Horse Memorial carved from the Harney Peak granite of Mount Rushmore and the Confederate Memorial Park in Albany, Georgia are produced using jet heat torches.

二、雕刻的生产工艺流程?/strong>

雕刻是一种可触的空间造型艺术。在中国古代,传统石雕都是由石雕艺人自己设计(往往是画稿)、自己雕凿独立完成。到目前为止很多石雕艺人仍然沿用此法。但随着我国城雕的兴起,一些大中型石雕的设计及模型的制作有雕刻家直接参与,之后由工厂的石雕师傅进行加工制作。城雕工艺及雕刻技艺要求都比较高,其雕刻工序大体分为开荒、打细以及打磨三个步骤,以下作具体介绍?

(一)开荒。开荒也有称“开大荒”,将史料粗坯凿去多余部分,一直到初具大体轮廓的阶段。进一步打出体与面关系基本形状的过程叫做“开中荒”。一般加工打到离石膏模型形体1厘米厚左右叫“开小荒”。三个过程有时交替进行,所使用的工具为大、中、小錾子?

(二)打细。打细是将“开小荒”余下的多余部分凿掉,重点是刻画形象和找准形体的起伏结构等微妙变化。打细石对石雕像进行艺术处理的重要阶段,使用的工具为齿凿、平凿、石挫等,需要耐心精雕细刻?

(三)打磨。打磨是在打细石雕的基础上,用研磨工具进行打磨、抛光以显示石材的质感,增添石雕作品的光彩,提高其艺术感染力。打磨的工具和材料有抛光机、砂轮、砂纸、抛光膏等。这道工序是根据艺术效果需要进行操作的,有时通体打磨、有时局部打磨?

(四)光泽润色。雕刻家们从大理石荒料中雕刻出精美的雕刻品。凿子,锤子和手钻等工具经常用来帮助完成创作。磨石和砂纸帮助光滑雕刻品的外观。氧化锡等可用于增加雕刻品的光泽。由于大理石便于使用,采矿量大,持久耐用等特性,大理石被广泛用于形象工程。从欧洲进口到印度的大理石雕刻品更具异国情调?

The process of stone sculpture

The work begins with the selection of a stone for carving. The artist may carve in the direct way, by carving without a model, creating a form or figure from scratch, with only the idea in his mind as a guideline, sketching on the block of stone and developing the work along the way. This method can be inspiring but can also present major problems when too much stone is removed in previous stages.

Or the sculptor may begin with a clearly defined model to be copied in stone. Traditionally the sculptor would begin by forming a model in clay or wax, and then copying this in stone by measuring with calipers or a pointing machine. This method leaves much less chance for error, so the desired result can be achieved as expected. This method is also used when the carving is done by other sculptors, such as artisans or employees of the sculptor.

Some artists use the stone itself as inspiration; the Renaissance artist Michelangelo claimed that his job was to free the human form trapped inside the block.

Roughing out

When he is ready to carve, the artist usually begins by knocking off large portions of unwanted stone. For this task he may select a point chisel, which is a long, hefty piece of steel with a point at one end and a broad striking surface at the other. A pitching tool may also be used at this early stage; which is a wedge-shaped chisel with a broad, flat edge. The pitching tool is useful for splitting the stone and removing large, unwanted chunks. The sculptor also selects a mallet, which is a hammer with a broad, barrel-shaped head. The artist places the point of the chisel or the edge of the pitching tool against a selected part of the stone, then swings the mallet at it with the strongest possible stroke. He must be careful to strike the end of the tool accurately; the smallest miscalculation can damage the sculptor’s hand. When the mallet connects to the tool, energy is transferred along the tool, shattering the stone. Most sculptors work rhythmically, turning the tool with each blow so that the stone is removed quickly and evenly. This is the “roughing out?stage of the sculpting process.

Refining

Once the general shape of the statue has been determined, the sculptor uses other tools to refine the figure. A toothed chisel or claw chisel has multiple gouging surfaces which create parallel lines in the stone. These tools are generally used to add texture to the figure. An artist might mark out specific lines by using calipers to measure an area of stone to be addressed, and marking the removal area with pencil, charcoal or chalk. The stone carver generally uses a shallower stroke at this point in the process. The roughing-out stage requires direct contact with the stone at a 90 degree angle, but with refining strokes the sculptor holds the tool at an angle of 45 degrees or less.

Final stages

Eventually the sculptor has changed the stone from a rough block into the general shape of the finished statue. Tools called rasps and rifflers are then used to enhance the shape into its final form. A rasp is a flat, steel tool with a coarse surface. The sculptor uses broad, sweeping strokes to remove excess stone as small chips or dust. A riffler is a smaller variation of the rasp, which can be used to create details such as folds of clothing or locks of hair.

The final stage of the carving process is polishing. Sandpaper can be used as a first step in the polishing process, or sand cloth. Emery, a stone that is harder and rougher than the sculpture media, is also used in the finishing process. This abrading, or wearing away, brings out the color of the stone, reveals patterns in the surface and adds a sheen. Tin and iron oxides are often used to give the stone a highly reflective exterior.

Rough and unfinished statues

Rough block forms of unfinished statuary are known, and are in museums. Notable are the Akhenaten, Amarna Period statuary found at Akhetaten. One known sculptor, Thutmose (sculptor), has his entire shop excavated at Akhetaten, with many unfinished block forms.

三、石材雕刻必备的七样工具?/strong>

美丽的石雕人人都喜欢,但是雕刻的工具就不是那么的美丽与优雅了。石材雕刻必需的七样基本工具有?/p>

①雕刻刀。为泥塑工具,用于刮、削、贴、挑、压、抹泥塑和造型。又分为3种:第一种为金属工具,由?发蓝防锈)、不锈钢、黄铜等制成,刀头分斜三角形、柳叶形、卯叶形和箭镞形,有的边缘为锯齿状。第二种为非金属工具,由竹、木、骨、象牙、牛角、塑料等材料制成。大型的刀具形状有鞋底形、墨鱼骨形、拇指形、斜三角形等;小型刀具形状有菱角形、小脚形、球形、条形等。第三种为刮刀,可切削造型和做衣纹,有各种圆弧形和方形双面刮刀等?

②石雕凿。为钢质杆形石雕工具,下端为楔形或锥形,端末有刃口,用锤敲击上端使下端刃部受力,按刃部形状分尖凿、平凿、半圆凿和齿凿,是石雕基本工具?

③石雕锤。为敲击工具,用以敲击石雕凿或木雕刀雕刻石、木料,分大、中、小三号。花锤亦是石雕锤,直接以锤面敲击石块,造成粗犷厚重,浑然一体的雕刻感。剁斧用于直接剁砍石面,砍出工整平行的细线,能加强雕刻体面的方向感、韵律感?

④木雕刀。一般由刀头、刀把和铁箍构成,依刃口形状分平口、斜刃、三角和圆口刀4种,按颈状分有曲颈、直颈两种,每一类又各有大、中、小3号?

⑤弓把。为雕刻用卡钳。可测量距离,有两个可开合的象牙形卡脚,也可随时改变卡脚的弯度?

⑥比例弓把。是雕刻放大用的度量工具?

⑦点型仪。为三坐标定位仪,用于复制石雕与木雕。在石膏像上找出3个基准点,用点型仪上的定位钢针对准并固定,利用点型仪上可滑动的部件和万向关节及指针,可对准雕像上任何一个空间位置,把可移动的部件锁定。把点型仪挪到石块或木料上,钢针对准相应的基准点,指针能把石膏像上的点标于石头或木块上,就能准确地复制成石雕和木雕?/p>

Tools

A. The Italian terms for the basic carving tools of stone sculpture are given here, and where possible the English terms have been included.

?La Mazza ?The mallet This is used to strike the chisel.
?Gli Scalpelli - The Chisels. These come in various types:
o La Subbia - (the Point) a pointed chisel or punch
o L'Unghietto - (Round or Rondel Chisel) Literally, "little fingernail"
o La Gradina - (Toothed Chisel or Claw) a chisel with multiple teeth
o Lo Scalpello - a flat chisel
?Lo Scapezzatore - (Pitcher or Pitching Tool) a hefty chisel with a broad blunt edge, for splitting.
?Il Martello Pneumatico ?Pneumatic hammer
?Il Flessibile - an angle grinder, fitted with an electrolvsis-applied diamond studded blade
?Hand Drill

In addition to those hand tools listed above, the marble sculptor would use a variety of hammers - both for the striking of edge tools (chisels and hand drills) and for striking the stone directly (Bocciarda a Martello in Italian, Boucharde in French, Bush Hammer in English). Following the work of the hammer and chisel, the sculptor will sometimes refine the form further through the use of Rasps, Files and Abrasive Rubbing Stones and/or Sandpaper to smooth the surface contours of the form. To achieve a high-lustre polish on marble a very fine abrasive, tin oxide, is used following the use of pumice or finer grits of sandpaper.

B. Basic granite carving tools fall into three types:

Percussion tools for hitting - such as mallets, axes, adzes, bouchards and toothed hammers.

Chisels for cutting - such as lettering chisels, points, pitching tools, and claw chisels. Chisels in turn may by hand held and hammered or pneumatic powered.

Abrasives for erosion - such as carborundum blocks, drills, saws, grinding and cutting wheels, water erosion machinery and dressing tools such as French and English drags.

More advanced processes, such as laser cutting and jet torches, use sudden, high temperature to shatter the stone.

The use of chisels for granite carving is possible in several ways. Two are:

The masons stroke, in which a flat chisel is used at approximately 90 degrees to the surface in an organised sweep. It shatters the stone beneath it and each successive pass lowers the surface.

The lettering stroke, in which the chisel is used along the surface at approximately 30 degrees to cut beneath the existing surface.

四、石雕的产品

1、石雕大体可分为圆雕(Round Carving)和浮?Basso-relievo)

?)圆雕又称立体雕,是艺术在雕件上的整体表现,观赏者可以从不同角度看到物体的各个侧面。它要求雕刻者从前、后、左、右、上、中、下全方位进行雕刻。由于圆雕作品极富立体感,生动、逼真、传神,所以圆雕对石材的选择要求比较严格,从长宽到厚薄都必须具备与实物相适当的比例,然后雕师们才按比例“打坯”?/p>

“打坯”是圆雕中的第一道程序,也是一个重要环节,特别是大型的圆雕作品,还需要先在泥土上“打坯”,订完“泥稿”后,再正式在石材上“打坯”。“打坯”的目的是确保雕品的各个部件能符合严格的比例要求,然后再动刀雕刻出生动传神的作品。圆雕一般从前方位“开雕”,同时要求特别注意作品的各个角度和方位的统一、和谐与融合,只有这样,圆雕作品才经得起观赏者全方位的“透视”?/p>

?)浮雕,是在平面上雕刻出凹凸起伏形象的一种雕刻,是一种介于圆雕和绘画之间的艺术表现形式?/p>





(一)Carving products石雕类的产品非常丰富,有:

1、柱子(Column?

多利克式柱(Doric order)、托斯卡纳式柱(Tuscan order)、爱奥尼亚柱式(Ionic order)、科林斯柱式(Corinthian order)、混合式?Composite order),所罗门式柱(Solomonic)

Doric order

The Doric order is the oldest and simplest of the classical orders. It is composed of a vertical cylinder that is wider at the bottom. It generally has neither a base nor a detailed capital. It is instead often topped with an inverted frustum of a shallow cone or a cylindrical band of carvings. It is often referred to as the masculine order because it is represented in the bottom level of the Colosseum and the Parthenon, and was therefore considered to be able to hold more weight. The height-to-thickness ratio is about 8:1. The shaft of a Doric Column is always fluted.

The Greek Doric, developed in the western Dorian region of Greece, is the heaviest and most massive of the orders. It rises from the stylobate without any base; it is from four to six times as tall as its diameter; it has twenty broad flutes; the capital consists simply of a banded necking swelling out into a smooth echinus , which carries a flat square abacus; the Doric entablature is also the heaviest, being about one-fourth the height column. The Greek Doric order was not used after c. 100 B.C. until its “rediscovery?in the mid-eighteenth century.

Tuscan order

The Tuscan order, also known as Roman Doric, is also a simple design, the base and capital both being series of cylindrical disks of alternating diameter. The shaft is almost never fluted. The proportions vary, but are generally similar to Doric columns. Height to width ratio is about 7:1.

Ionic order

The Ionic column is considerably more complex than the Doric or Tuscan. It usually has a base and the shaft is often fluted (it has grooves carved up its length). On the top is a capital in the characteristic shape of a scroll, called a vollut, or scroll, at the four corners. The height-to-thickness ratio is around 9:1. Due to the more refined proportions and scroll capitals, the Ionic column is sometimes associated with academic buildings.



Corinthian order

The Corinthian order is named for the Greek city-state of Corinth, to which it was connected in the period. However, according to the Greek architectural historian Vitruvius, the column was created by the sculptor Callimachus, probably an Athenian, who drew acanthus leaves growing around a votive basket. In fact, the oldest known Corinthian capital was found in Bassae, dated at 427 BC. It is sometimes called the feminine order because it is on the top level of the Colosseum and holding up the least weight, and also has the slenderest ratio of thickness to height. Height to width ratio is about 10:1.

Composite order

The Composite order draws its name from the capital being a composite of the Ionic and Corinthian capitals. The acanthus of the Corinthian column already has a scroll-like element, so the distinction is sometimes subtle. Generally the Composite is similar to the Corinthian in proportion and employment, often in the upper tiers of colonnades. Height to width ratio is about 11:1 or 12:1.

Solomonic

Solomonic columns were inventions of Baroque architects in Europe. They were not used in antiquity, but were called “Solomonic?by baroque architects because they were based on a description of columns in the great temple of King Solomon in the Old Testament. A Solomonic column begins on a base and ends in a capital, just like a classical column, but the shaft twists around the usual parameters of a column, producing a dramatic, serpentine effect of movement. The most famous use of Solomonic columns is in the baldocchino designed by Bernini for Saint Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican City.



2、喷泉(Fountain):

壁式喷泉(Wall Fountain)、室外喷?Garden Fountain),室内喷?Indoor Fountain)

Wall Fountain



Garden Fountain







Indoor Fountain





3、壁?Fireplace)





4、雕像(Statue?/strong>





5、门廊(Door Way?/strong>



6、意形雕刻(Sculpture?/strong>







7、花?Planter)





8、花?Vase)





9、露?Gazebo)





10、佛?stupa)



五、大理石与花岗岩雕刻的地域分布:?/strong>

随着中国石材工业的快速发展。作为石材深加工的石雕刻与石制工艺品工业,是提高产品附加值、扩大出口创汇的重要组成部分之一,也得到了蓬勃发展。特别是近几年来发展尤为迅速,呈现连年增长的趋势,其出口增长率高于其它石材产品。这些年,我国石刻品出口创汇额,基本上是占全国石材产品出口总额的三分之一左右,而且还有上升趋势,已成为石材产品出口的一个重要方面,石刻制品已出口到50多个国家和地区?/p>

我国石雕、石刻业发展快的地区主要集中在福建、河北、北京、山东、广东、浙江,其次有四川、江苏、江西、山西、黑龙江、陕西、云南等省、市?/p>

福建石刻历史久远,主要集中在惠安、南安、泉州、晋江、漳州等县、市。现今全省每年生产数十万件石刻制品,大部份供出口,远销世界。近年来“三资”企业迅速发展,引进了一些石刻的先进技术设备。生产的产品有形象逼真的花卉鸟兽、栩栩如生的人物造型与石佛像,壮观的石龙、石狮,精致的石墓碑、石灯笼、石塔、石庙宇及园林石刻等,工艺精湛、声名远扬。在新加坡、日本等国也都有福建石刻产品,尤其是其碑石大量出口日本?/p>

福建全省石刻工艺制品出口创汇额居我国各省第一位。福建石雕刻以花岗石原料为主,分为圆雕、浮雕、沉雕、影雕、镂雕等,工艺奇巧,堪称“中华一绝”?/p>

河北、北京以大理石雕刻为主,尤以北京房山和河北曲阳产的汉白玉及四川产的蜀白玉等为主要原料,雕刻手法多样,技艺精深。河北石刻集中在曲阳,被誉为“石雕之乡”,大理石雕刻已有两千多年历史,历代石刻名家、名作不少,现有大小石雕刻厂?000多个,还有一所雕刻学校。曲阳石雕出口到40多个国家和地区,优秀作品誉满中外。北京石雕为历代皇家宫庭和御园建造做出过巨大贡献,至今保存着许多传世杰作,如故宫中的石雕蟠龙等。现今,北京房山县石刻发展很快,所产汉白玉石狮,石佛像和园林艺术石刻深受国内外用户欢迎?/p>

山东省的花岗石雕刻和大理石雕刻都很发达,青岛、平度、莱州、泰安、嘉祥等市县是其石雕刻制品的主要集中生产地区,其生产已形成一定规模,并已批量出口石刻制品。花岗石雕刻以日本式石灯笼、仿石雕刻为主;大理石雕刻以古今人物、仕女造像和动物、园林装饰小品为主。曾子故乡嘉祥县是中国石雕和漫画石刻发祥地之一,是我国又一个“石雕之乡”,已有2000多年历史,如汉代武氏墓群石刻和汉画像石刻,武氏祠内一对大型石狮是我国现存石狮中唯一有确切年代记载的艺术珍品。嘉祥县已成为全省重点石刻品出口地区之一,并将进一步扩大发展?/p>

广东、浙江、江苏、四川、陕西等省石雕制作历史十分悠久,现今也有批量生产和出口。如广东石雕刻工艺制品多种多样,年产超过万吨,大理石制家具等批量出口海外。浙江除杭州传统大理石石材家具外,近年来花岗石石刻制品,尤其是日式墓碑生产与出口发展的也很快。大型彩石镶嵌《红楼梦故事图》雕屏在乐清制成,雕屏高2.3m、长70m、重13吨,包含各类人物形象30多个,集文学艺术和工艺于一体,壮丽辉煌。江苏近年以苏北地区石雕刻发展较快,徐福故里赣榆县的石材家具和日式墓葬用品,如龙盘石桌、虎头石凳、石茶几和石灯笼等,都很有名。四川以宝兴蜀白玉大理石雕刻为主,其次是青砂石和花岗石雕刻,既制作石狮、石象、石龙、石马、石牛、石兔、石羊和石麒麟等雕刻,又制作人物、仕女、菩萨、罗汉等雕像和园林石雕、花瓶等工艺石雕,年产量已达10万件(套),产品销往省外并出口美国等国家和地区?/p>

云南大理县的苍山玉石雕刻工艺品和大理石家具久有盛名,远销海内外;陕西石雕历史悠久,曾为秦汉和唐宋历代帝王将相陵墓制作了许多石雕像,石碑刻如富平、绥德两县的炕头石狮千姿百态,堪称一绝,以及近年黄帝陵石刻等都声名远扬?/p>

六、验货标准:

1、根据照片来生产的产?/p>

对于这种产品我们验货的时候主要是要看总的尺寸是否正确,抛光,上腊是否到位。因为大部分石雕都是手工的,所以误差范围不会像规格板,台板等那么严格,一般误差为±2CM也是可以接受?/p>

2?根据客户的细节图来生产的产品

对于这种产品,我们验货的时候就要注意到每个细节了,每个部分的尺寸都要检验,数量是否有足,抛光,上腊是否到位。除了这些还要注意雕刻细节比如说花,线条等是否按客户的设计来做的,这点非常重要!总之,有体现在图纸上的都要认真检查?/p>

上述?种情况,产品都要试拼,这样才能知道生产出来后的效果,然后拍照给客户确认,等客户说可以,那就可以拆下抛光打腊,然后进行包装了?/p>

七、包?/strong>

石雕的外包装跟台板,规板等产品的包装一样,都是用木箱,但是里面的包装有点不一样,对于石雕的产品,里面除了薄膜之外,还要放上泡沫,以防断裂





如果产品有分块的,那么就要注明顺序,以便客户安装?/p>

八、装?/strong>

对于异形产品,搬来搬去很容易导致产品的破裂等问题,所以如果是整柜发货的,最好是装柜子拖到工厂直接装?/p>

For full container, it is better to directly load all the goods into the container in the factory.







如果是散货的话,就要有专业的人到码头帮忙装柜?/p>

For LCL, we need professional person to load the goods at the port.

九、常用的石头

大理?Marble):房山白Fang Shan White,埃及米黄Galala Beige,金碧辉煌Egyptian Yellow,金丝米黄Sunny Lite,汉白玉Dynasty Jade,湖南白Hunan White,青白石Qing Bai Stone,草白玉CaoBaiYu,晚霞红Evening Cloud Red,绿石Green Marble,血红石Blood Red,黑白根Black-white Vein,咖啡China Coffee, ?/p>

花岗?Granite):G602,G603,G623,G682,G654,G655,山西黑(Shanxi Black),枫叶红(Maple Leaves),G681,等国产石头

石灰?Limestone):山西黄Shanxi Yellow, 河南米黄Hennan Beige,贵州米黄Guizhou Cream Limestone?虎皮红tiger skin Red,虎皮黄tiger skin yellow

洞石(Travertine):国产黄洞China Dark Travertine,国产白洞China Light Travertine,咖啡洞Coffee Travertine, 红洞Red Travertine,黄洞Yellow Travertine

砂岩(Sandstone):山西砂岩Shanxi Sandstone,云南黄砂岩Yunan Yellow Sandstone,木纹砂岩Limer Sandstone

玉石(Onxy):松香玉Resin Yellow

十、在贸易过程中常见的问题

1、Can you produce the products according to the photos?你们能否只根据照片来生产?/b>

Yes we can. Can you please tell me what size do you want and what about the quantity? Also which kind of color do you prefer?

这种情况,我们主要就是要跟客户确认他所需要的石种、尺寸和数量,对重量有没有要求,其他的生产细节则由我们工厂自己订?/p>

如果是壁炉的话,除了确认整体的长、宽、高尺寸外,还要确认炉口的尺寸,因为每个人买的炉子大小可能会不一样;如果是喷泉的话,就要确认喷水孔的大小;柱子就要确认是否分段,是否中空,是否对剖等

2?Can you produce the products according to our detail drawings?

Yes we can. We do so many this kind of projects. You can send the drawings to me then we can quote the price for you. If there is any question I will check for you.

这种情况对我们来说会复杂一些,工作量也比较大。首先我们自己要先看一遍图纸大略了解一下大体的尺寸,然后做个报价。等客人确定要下单了,我们就要理解透客户的设计图,并对图纸进行翻译,因为很多工厂都是不懂英语的,在翻译中如果有碰到问题的也要及时跟客户确认,否则到工厂生产的时候就有可能产生不少问题?/p>

有一些问题我们在翻译的时候也发现不出来,只有在实际生产中才会碰到,这个时候我们要跟工人先探讨一下怎么处理,得出解决方案后跟客户确认,客户接受后再继续生产,如果客户不接受那就要等客户修改完图纸再继续?/p>

3?Do our products need to be fumigated?

Yes, all the products need to be fumigated export from China.

一般都要熏蒸。对于数量少,体积小的产品如果没法到熏蒸厂熏蒸的,也要用三合板包装?/p>

4?Do we need to buy insurance for our products?

We suggest our clients buy insurance for their carving products, especially for products shipped by LCL.

对于雕刻产品来讲,有一个部分破了,就有可能整个产品就没法用了,而且雕刻产品货值一般都较高,所以都是建议客户要买保险,特别是走散货?/p>